top of page

Scientific Literature

Risk Reduction Estimates

E. Bechor The Impact of Family History on the Lifetime Prevalence of Disease. White paper *not peer-reviewed* (2023). (Orchid) Online risk reduction calculator.

E. Widen, L. Lello, T. G. Raben, L. C. A. M. Tellier, and S. D. H. Hsu. Polygenic Health Index, General Health, and Pleiotropy: Sibling Analysis and Disease Risk Reduction. Scientific Reports (2022). (LifeView)


L. Lello, M. Hsu, E. Widen, and T. G. Raben. Sibling Variation in Phenotype and Genotype: Polygenic Trait Distributions and DNA Recombination Mapping with UK Biobank and IVF Family Data.Scientific Reports (2023). (LifeView)


T. Lencz, D. Backenroth, …, O. Zuk, and S. Carmi. Utility of polygenic embryo screening for disease depends on the selection strategy. eLife (2021).

Related: J. M. Fletcher, Y. Wu, and Q. Lu. Polygenic Screening: What’s the use? eLife (Insight; 2021). Online risk reduction calculator


P. Turley, M. N. Meyer, …, D. Laibson, and P. M. Visscher. Problems with Using Polygenic Scores to Select Embryos, The New England Journal of Medicine (2021).

Related: Use of Polygenic Scores to Select Embryos The New England Journal of Medicine (Correspondence; 2021)


N. R. Treff, J. Eccles, …, J. Xu, and L. C. A. M. Tellier. Preimplantation Genetic Testing for Polygenic Disease Relative Risk Reduction: Evaluation of Genomic Index Performance in 11,883 Adult Sibling Pairs. Genes (2020). (LifeView)

E. Karavani, O. Zuk, …, T. Lencz, and S. Carmi. Screening human embryos for polygenic traits has limited utility. Cell (2019).

Related: J. Kaiser. Screening embryos for IQ and other complex traits is premature, study concludes. Science (News; 2019).

N. R. Treff, J. Eccles, …, S. Hsu, and L. C. A. M. Tellier. Utility and First Clinical Application of Screening Embryos for Polygenic Disease Risk Reduction. Frontiers in Endocrinology (2019). (LifeView)


C. Shulman and N. Bostrom. Embryo Selection for Cognitive Enhancement: Curiosity or Game-changer? Global Policy (2014).

See also: Gwern’s blog on embryo selection

bottom of page